Kidneys (renes) are paired bean-shaped organ, which is the main body of uropoiesis. Weight of one kidney varies from 120 to 200 kidney Situated in the abdomen, on both sides of the spine, at the XII thoracic and upper two lumbar vertebrae. They lie on the back of the abdominal wall, and the right kidney is slightly lower than the left, and locked in position renal fascia, blood vessels and adipose capsule. Front of the right kidney are right flexure of the colon and the descending portion of the duodenum to the upper part of the visceral surface of the adjacent liver. Front of the left kidney is the tail of the pancreas, adjacent to the top of the spleen. In addition, the upper end (pole) of each kidney is in contact with the adrenal gland. Buds are covered in front by peritoneum.

In the kidney is isolated front and rear surfaces, upper (extremitas superior) and lower (extremitas inferior) poles, or ends. Convex lateral margin (margo lateralis) is turned outwards kidneys, and concave medial directed to the spine. In the center of the medial margin (margo medialis) (Fig. 178) is a small hollow, through which pass blood vessels, nerves and ureter. This depression is called the gate kidneys (hilum renale).

A bud is formed by the cortex and medulla, which differ from each other by color and density. Cortex (cortex renalis) occupies the peripheral units and gives a small branch, called renal columns (columnae renales), which penetrate into the medulla. In the cortex contains most of the structural and functional units of the kidneys - the nephrons. Their total number reaches 1 million medulla (medulla renalis) is located in the central part and a conical renal pyramids (pyramides renales) of 10-15. Medulla forms the thin branches - the rays that penetrate the cortex.

The beginning of the nephron is the renal corpuscle (corpusculum renale), which contains a huge amount of blood capillaries, forming a vascular glomerulus (glomerulus). Vascular coil supplied with blood from the kidney of the renal artery, which is divided into interlobar artery (a. interlobaris), in turn, branch into arcuate arteries (a. arcuata), divided into interlobular (a. interlobularis ). Themselves glomeruli formed capillaries extending from the bearing of vessels (vas afferens) - glomerular arterioles branching from the interlobular arteries. In glomerular capillaries, efferent glomerular collected in arterioles (vas efferens). Efferent vessels of approximately 2 times less than the bearing, resulting in increased blood pressure in the glomeruli and by filtering the blood plasma into the cavity of the capsule.

Outside the renal corpuscle surrounds bilayer capsule (capsula glomeruli), which is formed between the sheets of the cavity, passing into the lumen of the proximal convoluted tubule (tubulus contortus proximalis), part of the renal tubules of the nephron. Apart from him, form a system of distal convoluted tubule (tubulus contortus distalis), who transforms into a collective renal tubule (tubulus renalis colligens), and the loop of the nephron from the proximal straight, thin and straight distal tubules. The loop has an upward (pars ascendens ansae) and descending (pars descendens ansae) parts. From within convoluted tubules lined by a single layer of cuboidal epithelium and collecting tubules - a single-layered prismatic epithelium.

In Fig. 178.
Kidney, rear view
1 - the upper pole;
2 - the medial edge;
3 - kidney cortex;
4 - minor renal calyx;
5 - lateral margin;
6 - renal pelvis;
7 - large calyx;
8 - renal medulla (pyramid);
9 - ureter;
10 - the lower pole
In Fig. 179.
Kidney in the context of
1 - kidney cortex;
2 - renal medulla (pyramid);
3 - pole kidney;
4 - large calyx;
5 - Gate kidney;
6 - renal pelvis;
7 - a small cup of kidney;
8 - ureter

Collecting duct renal papillary duct extends into (ductus papillaris), which is at the top of the pyramid opens into the cavity of the small renal calyx (calix renalis minor). 2.3 cups small opening in one large (calix renalis major), and 2-3 large cups - in the renal pelvis (pelvis renalis), which gradually narrows and in the gate forms a kidney ureter. Reabsorption and the final formation of urine by the nephrons in the convoluted tubules. Nephrons contained in the renal medulla, support the functioning of the body to the increase in blood flow through the kidney, caused intense muscular work.

In Fig. 180.
Urinary ducts and vessels of the kidney
1 - fascia kidney;
2 - the fatty capsule;
3 - fibrous capsule;
4 - convoluted tubules;
5 - vascular glomeruli;
6 - renal corpuscles;
7 - bringing the vessel;
8 - efferent vessel;
9 - two-ply capsule;
10 - interlobular artery;
11 - interlobular Vienna;
12 - Arc artery;
13 - Arc Vienna;
14 - renal medulla;
15 - interlobar artery;
16 - interlobar Vienna;
17 - papillary ducts;
18 - Pyramid kidneys


List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)