The liver (hepar)  is the largest gland of the human body, its mass reaches 1.5-2 kg, and size - 25-30 cm It is located in the upper abdomen under dome diaphragm , occupying mainly the right hypochondrium, and has the shape of the mushroom cap with a convex top surface, called the diaphragm (facies diaphragmatica) and corresponds to the shape of the dome diaphragm, and part of the concave inner bottom surface (facies visceralis). The bottom surface is divided into four shares with three grooves, one of which lies the round ligament of the liver (lig. teres hepatis). In addition, the liver secretes a slightly convex back surface of the diaphragm (pars posterior) and a sharp lower edge (margo inferior), which separates the front upper and lower surfaces.

Convex surface of the liver is attached to the diaphragm by the falciform ligament of the liver (lig. falciforme hepatis) and the coronary ligament of the liver (lig. coronarium hepatis), and internal contact with the upper pole of right kidney and adrenal gland. Coronary ligament in the left and right ends of the triangular ligament of the liver forms (lig. triangulare hepatis). In addition to the ligaments, the liver is retained in position by a small gland , the inferior vena cava and the surrounding lower stomach and intestines.

Sickle ligament divides the liver into two halves. Most of them are located under the right dome of the diaphragm and is called the right lobe of the liver (lobus hepatis dexter), a minority - the left lobe of the liver (lobus hepatis sinister).

On the upper surface is pushed into the heart (impressio cardiaca). The inner surface is uneven, with traces of indentation adjacent organs: kidney (right kidney), indentation (impressio renalis), adrenal indentation (impressio suprarenalis), duodenal-intestinal indentation (impressio duodenalis) and colon-intestinal indentation (impressio colica). The bottom surface has three grooves (two longitudinal and one transverse), dividing it into right lobe, left, share, back, or tailed, the proportion of (lobus caudatus hepatis) and the front, or square, the proportion of (lobus quadratus hepatis). Transverse fissure of liver contains a gate (porta hepatis), through which the common hepatic duct (ductus hepaticus communis), Vienna gate (v. portae), hepatic artery (a. hepatica propria), and nerves . In the common hepatic duct empties into the cystic duct (ductus cysticus), forming the common bile duct (ductus choledochus), which merges with the duct of the pancreas and empties into the descending part of duodenum . The right longitudinal groove located gallbladder , bile accumulates in which.

Structural element of the liver lobules of the liver are (lo-buli hepatis) formed by liver cells - hepatocytes. Hepatocytes arranged in radial rows of bars around the central vein (v. centralis). Between the rows of radially arranged hepatocytes are interlobular veins (vv. interlobulares) and interlobular arteries (aa. interlobulares), representing the capillaries of the hepatic artery system and the portal vein. Capillaries merge into the central vein of lobules, which in turn flow into the collecting (sublobular) veins, and they fall into the hepatic veins (vv. hepaticae), which are tributaries of the inferior vena cava (v. cava inferior).

In Fig. 165.
Diaphragmatic surface of liver
1 - coronary ligament of liver;
2 - aperture;
3 - triangular ligament of the liver;
4 - sickle ligament of the liver;
5 - the right lobe of the liver;
6 - Left lobe of the liver;
7 - Round ligament of liver;
8 - a sharp lower edge;
9 - gall bladder

Between the cells of the liver lobules are the bile capillaries, or groove (ductuli biliferi), which, connecting outside the lobules form interlobular groove (ductuli interlobulares), forming the right and left hepatic ducts (ductuli hepatis dexter et sinister), the collecting-yuschiesya in common hepatic duct.

The diameter of the lobes of the liver is 1-2 mm.

In Fig. 166.
Lower surface of the liver
1 - Left lobe of the liver;
2 - the triangular ligament of the liver;
3 - Rear (tailed) fraction of the liver;
4 - adrenal indentation;
5 - kidney indentation;
6 - proper hepatic artery;
7 - Vienna gate;
8 - the common bile duct;
9 - common hepatic duct;
10 - cystic duct;
11 - the right lobe of the liver;
12 - duodenal-intestinal indentation;
13 - Round ligament of liver;
14 - colon-intestinal indentation;
15 - Front (square) share;
16 - gall bladder
In Fig. 167.
Slices of liver
1 - hepatic Vienna;
2 - segments of the liver;
3 - the central vein;
4 - interlobular arteries;
5 - interlobular groove;
6 - bile capillaries


List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)