Peritoneum (peritoneum) consists of one into another visceral (splanchnic) and parietal (parietal) sheets, between which the peritoneal cavity (cavum peritonei), a complex system of slit-like spaces filled with serous fluid, moistening the peritoneum. In men, abdominal cavity is closed and forms a pocket between the bladder and rectum. In women, the peritoneum communicates with the external environment through the fallopian tubes to form two pockets, between the bladder and uterus and between the uterus and rectum.

Stomach, spleen, mesenteric portion of small intestine, transverse colon, sigmoid colon, cecum with appendix (appendix), the upper third of the rectum, uterus and fallopian tubes are placed intraperitoneally, that is completely covered with peritoneum. The liver, gall bladder, ascending and descending colon, part of the duodenum and the middle third of the rectum are surrounded on three sides by peritoneum. Pancreas, kidneys, adrenal glands with, bladder, ureters, a large part of the duodenum and the lower third of the rectum are extraperitoneal, covered by peritoneum only on one side.

In the transition from body to body peritoneum forms large and small glands, mesentery of the small intestine, transverse colon, sigmoid colon, the upper third of the rectum and ligaments (eg, stomach, liver, spleen). Mesentery and ligaments authorities captured and held in limbo in the abdomen. In addition, they contain blood vessels and nerves.

In Fig. 158.
Diagram of the peritoneum
1 - diaphragm;
2 - liver;
3 - a small gland;
4 - the pancreas;
5 - stomach;
6 - the duodenum;
7 - cavity of the peritoneum;
8 - transverse colon;
9 - jejunum;
10 - caul;
11 - ileum;
12 - rectum;
13 - pozadivistseralnoe space
In Fig. 159.
Abdominal organs
1 - liver;
2 - stomach;
3 - gall bladder;
4 - spleen;
5 - pancreas;
6 - left flexure of the colon;
7 - right bend of the colon;
8 - the upper curve of the duodenum;
9 - the relief of duodenal ulcers;
10 - the ascending part of duodenum;
11 - ascending colon;
12 - ileum;
13 - mesentery of sigmoid colon;
14 - cecum;
15 - appendix;
16 - rectum;
17 - the sigmoid colon

List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)