Oral cavity

Oral cavity (cavum oris) is the beginning of the digestive apparatus. In front it is bounded by the lips, from the top - hard and soft palate, below - the muscles that form the bottom of the mouth and tongue, and on each side - his cheeks. Opens the mouth of the transverse mouth slit (rima oris), a limited lips (labia). The latter are the folds of the muscle, the outer surface is covered with leather, and lined the inner mucous membrane. Through the throat (fauces), rather, the Isthmus of fauces (isthmus faucium) oral cavity communicates with the pharynx. The mouth cavity is divided into two parts by alveolar processes of jaws and teeth. Perednenaruzhnaya part is called the vestibule cavity (vestibulum oris) and represents an arcuate slit between cheeks and gums from the teeth. Posteromedial, located medially from the alveolar process is called the proper mouth (cavum oris proprium). Front and sides it is bounded by the teeth, from below - the language and the bottom of the mouth, and on top - the sky. The mouth cavity is lined with oral mucosa (tunica mucosa oris), covered by stratified squamous epithelium neorogovevayuschy. It contains a large number of glands. The area of mucous membrane, fastened around the necks of the teeth on the periosteum of the alveolar processes of jaws, called a gum (gingiva).

Cheeks (buccae) covered with leather on the outside and the inside - the oral mucosa, which contains the ducts of the buccal glands, and form the buccal muscle (m. buccinator). Subcutaneous tissue is especially developed in the central part of the cheek. Between the occlusal and buccal muscles is sucking pad (corpus adiposum buccae).

The upper wall of the mouth (palate) is divided into two parts. Front - the hard palate (palatium durum) - formed by palatine processes of maxillary bones, and the horizontal plates of palatine bone covered with mucous membrane, along the median line which is a narrow white band, called "seam heaven» (raphe palati). Departs from the seam of several transverse palatine folds (plicae palatinae transversae).

Behind the hard palate becomes soft palate (palatium molle), mainly formed by the muscles and the aponeurosis tendon bundles. In the posterior part of the soft palate is a small conical protuberance, called the uvula (uvula), which is part of the so-called soft palate (velum palatinum). Along the edges of the soft palate moves to the front arch, called the palato-lingual bow (arcus palatoglossus) and sent to the root of the tongue, and back - velopharyngeal (arcus palatopharyngeus), going to the mucosa of the lateral pharyngeal wall. In the recesses formed between the arches on each side, lie the palatine tonsils (tonsillae palatinae). The lowest heaven and bow are formed mainly by muscles involved in the act of swallowing.

A muscle strain of the soft palate (m. tensor veli palatini), is a flat triangle, and stretches the front part of the soft palate and pharyngeal part of the auditory tube. Point of beginning of the scaphoid fossa is on, and place attachment - on the aponeurosis of the soft palate.

Muscle lifting the soft palate (m. levator veli palatini), raises the soft palate and pharyngeal narrowing hole auditory tube. It starts on the lower surface of the petrous part of temporal bone, and interwoven with bundles of muscles of the same name on the other hand, is attached to the middle portion of the aponeurosis of the sky.

Palatoglossus (m. palatoglossus) narrows the mouth, bringing together the front arch of the tongue. Starting point is located on the lateral edge of the tongue, and place attachment - to aponeurosis of soft palate.

Velopharyngeal muscle (m. palatopharyngeus) has a triangular shape, brings velopharyngeal arch, pulling up the lower part of the pharynx and larynx. It starts at the back of the lower part of the pharynx and the thyroid cartilage plate is attached to the aponeurosis of the soft palate.

Language (lingua) - mobile muscular organ that is located in the oral cavity and facilitates the process of chewing, swallowing, sucking, and speech production. Distinguished in the language body language (corpus linguae), the tip of tongue (apex linguae), the tongue root (radix linguae) and the dorsum of the tongue (dorsum linguae ). The body is separated from the root of the border groove (sulcus terminalis), consisting of two parts, converging at an obtuse angle at the apex of which is a blind hole tongue (foramen caecum linguae).

Top, sides and partially bottom of tongue is covered with a mucous membrane that fuses with the muscle fibers it contains cancer, lymphoma formation, and nerve endings, which are sensitive receptors. On the back and the body language of the mucous membrane is rough due to the large number of papillae tongue (papillae linguales), which are divided into four groups.

Filiform papillae (papillae filiformes) are located throughout the body language and are cone-shaped body with a racemose appendages at the tips.

In Fig. 152.
1 - glottis;
2 - Voice fold;
3 - fold threshold;
4 - cherpalonadgortannaya fold;
5 - the root of the tongue;
6 - palatine tonsils;
7 - a blind hole of the language;
8 - border furrow;
9 - leaf-buds;
10 - nipples, surrounded by the shaft;
11 - mushroom buds;
12 - body language;
13 - thread-like papillae;
14 - back of the tongue;
15 - the tip of the tongue

Mushroom papillae (papillae fungiformes) are on the back of the tongue closer to the edges and are shaped pineal tumors. They are larger at the edges of the tongue flattened, their number ranges from 150 to 200.

Leaf-buds (papillae foliatae) are concentrated in the sides of the language, and represent 5.8 folds, separated by grooves. They vary in size and are most pronounced in the back of the tongue.

Papillae surrounded the shaft (papillae vallatae), the largest, but slightly protruding above the surface, located on the border between the root and body language. Are cylindrical elevation, surrounded by groove, which is located around the shaft of the mucosa. Their number varies from 7 to 11.

Muscles of the tongue are represented by skeletal muscles and intrinsic muscles of the tongue. Skeletal muscles connect the tongue with the bones of the skull: sublingual, lingual muscle (m. hyoglossus) - with the hyoid bone and cartilage together with the muscle-lingual (m. chondroglossus) pulls the tongue back and down; shiloyazychnaya muscle (m. styloglossus) - with subulate process of the temporal bone, pulling the tongue upwards and backwards; genioglossal muscle (m. genioglossus) - with the spine of the lower jaw chin and pulls the tongue forward and down. Intrinsic muscles of the tongue have a start point and the attachment in the thickness of the language, being located in three mutually perpendicular directions: the lower longitudinal muscle (m. longitudinalis inferior) shortens the tongue, the upper longitudinal muscle (m. longitudinalis superior) flexes the tongue, shortening it and raising the tip of the language, the vertical muscles of the tongue (m. verticalis linguae) makes it a flat, transverse muscle of tongue (m. transversus linguae) reduces its diameter, and makes cross-convex upward.

From the lower surface of the tongue to the gums in the sagittal direction the fold of mucous membrane, which was called frenulum of tongue (frenulum linguae). On both sides of it at the bottom of the mouth on the sublingual fold open channels podnizhnechelyustnoy gland (glandula submandibularis) and sublingual gland (glandula sublingualis)  that produce saliva and are called salivary glands (glandulae salivales) . Podnizhnechelyustnaya gland is a tubular-alveolar protein and mucous glands, which lie at the bottom of the neck in podnizhnechelyustnoy fossa, below the jaw-hyoid muscles. Sublingual gland - alveolar-tubular protein and mucous gland, situated under the mucous membrane of the mouth on the oral and sublingual under the tongue muscle. Third duct of the salivary gland, parotid gland (glandula parotis), opens on the eve of the mouth on the buccal mucosa at the level of the upper second molar of a large. It represents the alveolar protein gland, lying in pozadichelyustnoy fossa anteriorly and downward from the outer ear

In Fig. 153.
The structure of the tooth
1 - crown;
2 - enamel;
3 - dentine;
4 - tooth pulp;
5 - neck of the tooth;
6 - a root of a tooth;
7 - cement;
8 - alveoli;
9 - root canal of a tooth;
10 - opening the top of the tooth root

Teeth (dentes), depending on their structure and functions are divided into large indigenous (dentes molares), small root (dentes premolares), canines (dentes canini) and incisors (dentes incisivi). All of them are fixed in a crescent alveolar processes of the lower and upper jaws. Method of attachment of the tooth with a crescent called vkolachivaniya.

Every tooth consists of the prominent above the gum,-tooth crown (corona dentis), the parts covered by gum - neck of the tooth (cervix dentis) and the inside - the tooth root (radix dentis). However, some teeth have two or more roots.

The bulk of the tooth is dentin (dentinum), which in the crown is covered with enamel (enamelin), and in the neck and root - cement (cementum). The root of the tooth root is surrounded by a shell-periodontium (periodontium), which with the help of the tooth ligament attaches it to the dental alveolus. Inside the crown of the tooth is formed by the tooth cavity (cavum dentis), which continues to narrow dental root canal (canalis radicis dentis), opening a small hole of the tooth root apex (foramen apicis radicis dentis). Through this opening into the cavity of the tooth containing the pulp, or pulp of the tooth (pulpa dentis), blood vessels and nerves pass.

In humans, teeth are cut in two periods. In the first period (from 6 months to 2 years) there are falling, so-called milk teeth (dentes decidui). There are only 20, 10 on each jaw. In the second period, which lasts from 6 to 7 years, and then from 20 to 30 (the so-called wisdom teeth), there is a 32 permanent teeth. An adult person on each half of the upper and lower jaws are cut by three large molars, two premolar, a canine and two incisor

In Fig. 154.
Calf's teeth
A - teeth of upper jaw;
B - the teeth of the mandible:
I - medial surface of the front incisor teeth;
II - the medial incisor cutting edge;
III - the lateral incisor front surface;
IV - the lateral incisor cutting edge;
V - front surface of the tusk;
VI - the cutting edge canine;
VII - the front surface of the first large indigenous;
VIII - the chewing surface of the first large indigenous;
IX - front surface of the second large molars;
X - chewing surface of the second large indigenous
In Fig. 155.
Permanent teeth
A - teeth of upper jaw;
B - the teeth of the mandible:
I - medial surface of the front incisor teeth;
II - the medial incisor cutting edge;
III - the lateral incisor front surface;
IV - the lateral incisor cutting edge;
V - front surface of the tusk;
VI - the cutting edge canine;
VII - the front surface of the first small indigenous;
VIII - the chewing surface of the first small indigenous;
IX - front surface of the second small molars;
X - chewing surface of the second small molars;
XI - the front surface of the first large indigenous;
XII - the chewing surface of the first large indigenous;
XIII - front surface of the second large molars;
XIV - chewing surface of the second large molars;
XV - large front surface of the third molars;
XVI - chewing surface of the third large indigenous

List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)