Arteries of the neck, head and face

Common carotid artery (a. carotis communis), doubles (left longer than the right), located on the neck behind the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Lateral common carotid artery is bordered by jugular vein, medial - with the larynx, trachea and esophagus. The branches of the common carotid artery did not depart, but at the upper edge of the thyroid cartilage it divides into two large vessels: external carotid and internal carotid artery.

In Fig. 216.
Arteries of the neck, head and face
1 - superficial temporal artery and its branches;
2 - deep temporal artery;
3 - maxillary artery;
4 - back auricular artery;
5 - occipital artery;
6 - the ophthalmic artery;
7 - of the middle meningeal artery;
8 - inferior alveolar artery;
9 - external carotid artery;
10 - facial artery;
11 - lingual artery;
12 - the internal carotid artery;
13 - upper thyroid artery;
14 - common carotid artery
In Fig. 217.
The arteries of the brain
1 - anterior cerebral artery;
2 - middle cerebral artery;
3 - the internal carotid artery;
4 - posterior communicating artery;
5 - posterior cerebral artery;
6 - the superior cerebellar artery;
7 - the main artery;
8 - Front inferior cerebellar artery;
9 - vertebral artery;
10 - posterior inferior cerebellar artery

Outdoor carotid artery (a. carotis externa) comes up, gives several branches, heading for the bodies of the face and head. They are:

1) the upper thyroid artery (a. thyreoidea superior), which together with the radiating branches supplying blood larynx, thyroid and parathyroid glands upper, sternocleidomastoid muscle and the muscles of the neck below the hyoid bone;

2) The lingual artery (a. lingualis) and its branches, which supply blood to the tongue, floor of the mouth muscles, mucous membrane of the mouth and gums, tonsils and salivary glands;

3) branches of the facial artery (a. facialis), they nourish the throat, soft palate, tonsils, nasal and facial muscles circumference of the mouth, muscle floor of the mouth and the submandibular gland;

4) the occipital artery (a. occipitalis), which supplies blood neck muscles and skin, dura mater and the ear;

5) branch of the posterior auricular artery (a. auricularis posterior), they give branches to the auricle, middle ear and mastoid cells;

6) the ascending pharyngeal artery branches (a. pharyngea ascendens), which are sent to the walls of the pharynx, tonsils, soft palate, ear and auditory tube and solid head shell.

At the level of cervical articular process of the mandible external carotid artery divides into terminal branches: the maxillary artery and superficial temporal artery.

Maxillary artery (a. maxillaris) is located in the infratemporal and pterygopalatine pits and supplies blood deep areas of the face and head (facial and masticatory muscles of the face, oral mucosa, teeth, the middle ear cavity, nasal cavity and paranasal cavities it) . From the maxillary artery leaves several major branches: the middle meningeal artery (a. meningea media) and the inferior alveolar artery (a. alveolaris inferior), which supply blood and tissues of the teeth of the mandible; infraorbital artery (a . infraorbitalis) that supply blood to the muscles circle the eyes and cheeks, descending palatine artery (a. palatina descendens), going to the mucosa of the hard and soft palate, as well as the nasal cavity, wedge-palatine artery (a. sphenopalatina ), which supplies blood to the nasal cavity and pharynx.

Superficial temporal artery (a. temporalis superficialis) branches off from the external carotid artery above the maxillary and nourishes the parotid gland, ear, ear canal, facial muscle cheek, eye circles and fronto-temporal area of the face.

The internal carotid artery (a. carotis interna) is located behind the external carotid artery and consists of the cervical and intracranial parts. On the neck of the branches of her not depart. Artery passes into the cranial cavity through a sleepy canal pyramid of the temporal bone, which divides into the following arteries:

1) ophthalmic artery (a. ophthalmica) enters the orbit through the optic canal and supplies blood eyeball, eye muscles, lacrimal gland and eyelids;

2) anterior cerebral artery (a. cerebri anterior) feeds the medial frontal cortex and parietal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres, corpus callosum, olfactory tract and olfactory bulb;

3) middle cerebral artery (a. cerebri media) supplies blood to part of the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres;

4) the posterior communicating artery (a. communicans posterior) anastomose (connect) with the posterior cerebral artery of the vertebral artery system.

Together with the vertebral arteries brain arteries are involved in the formation around the sella circular anastomosis, called arterial circle of cerebrum (circus arteriosus cerebri), which runs numerous branches that feed the brain.

List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)